Insecticide Classification Guide

Rotate Insecticides to Control Resistant Insects Effectively

Rotate insecticides with different modes of action. Use chart below to identify the modes of action of commonly used insecticides.

Search
 
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

1A Carbamates Alanycarb, Aldicarb, Bendiocarb, Benfuracarb, Butocarboxim, Butoxycarboxim, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Carbosulfan, Ethiofencarb, Fenobucarb, Formetanate, Furathiocarb, Isoprocarb, Methiocarb, Methomyl, Metolcarb, Oxamyl, Pirimicarb, Propoxur, Thiodicarb, Thiofanox, Triazamate,Trimethacarb, XMC, Xylylcarb
1B Organophosphates Acephate, Azamethiphos, Azinphosethyl, Azinphos-methyl, Cadusafos, Chlorethoxyfos, Chlorfenvinphos, Chlormephos, Chlorpyrifos, Chlorpyrifosmethyl, Coumaphos, Cyanophos, Demeton-S-methyl, Diazinon, Dichlorvos/ DDVP, Dicrotophos, Dimethoate, Dimethylvinphos, Disulfoton, EPN, Ethion, Ethoprophos, Famphur, Fenamiphos, Fenitrothion, Fenthion, Fosthiazate, Heptenophos, Imicyafos, Isofenphos, Isopropyl O- (methoxyaminothiophosphoryl) salicylate, Isoxathion, Malathion, Mecarbam, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Mevinphos, Monocrotophos, Naled, Omethoate, Oxydemetonmethyl, Parathion, Parathion-methyl, Phenthoate, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosmet, Phosphamidon, Phoxim, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Propetamphos, Prothiofos, Pyraclofos, Pyridaphenthion, Quinalphos, Sulfotep, Tebupirimfos, Temephos, Terbufos, Tetrachlorvinphos, Thiometon, Triazophos, Trichlorfon, Vamidothion
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

2A Cyclodiene organochlorines Chlordane, Endosulfan
2B Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) Ethiprole, Fipronil
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

3A Pyrethroids Pyrethrins Acrinathrin, Allethrin, d-cis-trans Allethrin, d-trans Allethrin, Bifenthrin, Bioallethrin, Bioallethrin-S-cyclopentenyl isomer, Bioresmethrin, Cycloprothrin, Cyfluthrin, beta-Cyfluthrin, Cyhalothrin, lambda-Cyhalothrin, gamma-Cyhalothrin, Cypermethrin, alpha-Cypermethrin, beta-Cypermethrin, theta-cypermethrin, zeta-Cypermethrin, Cyphenothrin, (1R)- trans- isomers], Deltamethrin, Empenthrin (EZ)- (1R)- isomers],Esfenvalerate, Etofenprox, Fenpropathrin, Fenvalerate, Flucythrinate, Flumethrin, tau-Fluvalinate, Halfenprox, Imiprothrin, Kadethrin, Permethrin, Phenothrin [(1R)-transisomer], Prallethrin, Pyrethrins (pyrethrum), Resmethrin, Silafluofen, Tefluthrin, Tetramethrin, Tetramethrin [(1R)-isomers], Tralomethrin, Transfluthrin,
3B DDT Methoxychlor DDT Methoxychlor
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein isresponsible for
insecticidal effects}

4A Neonicotinoids Acetamiprid, Clothianidin, Dinotefuran, Imidacloprid, Nitenpyram, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam,
4B Nicotine Nicotine
4C Sulfoxaflor Sulfoxaflor
4D Butenolides Flupyradifurone
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein is responsible for
insecticidal effects}

Spinosyns Spinetoram, Spinosad
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve and muscle action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein is responsible for
insecticidal effects}

Avermectins, Milbemycins Abamectin, Emamectin benzoate, Lepimectin, Milbemectin
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

7A Juvenile hormone analogues Hydroprene, Kinoprene, Methoprene
7B Fenoxycarb Fenoxycarb
7C Pyriproxyfen Pyriproxyfen
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
8A Alkyl halides Methyl bromide and other alkyl halides
8B Chloropicrin Chloropicrin
8C Sulfuryl fluoride Sulfuryl fluoride
8D Borates Borax
8E Tartar emetic Tartar emetic
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

9B Pymetrozine Pymetrozine
9C Flonicamid Flonicamid
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

10A* Clofentezine Hexythiazox Diflovidazin Clofentezine, Hexythiazox, Diflovidazin
10B Etoxazole Etoxazole
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

(includes transgenic crops
expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins, however specific guidance for resistance management of
transgenic crops is not based on rotation of modes of action)

11A Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis

B.t. crop proteins: (*Please see footnote) Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab, Vip3A, mCry3A, Cry3Ab, Cry3Bb, Cry34Ab1/ Cry35Ab

11B Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus sphaericus
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Compounds affect the function of this protein, but it is not clear that this is what leads to biological activity}

12A Diafenthiuron Diafenthiuron
12B Organotin miticides Azocyclotin, Cyhexatin, Fenbutatin oxide
12C Propargite Propargite
12D Tetradifon Tetradifon
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism Chlorfenapyr Chlorfenapyr
DNOCs DNOC
Sulfluramid Sulfluramid
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Compounds affect the function of this protein, but it is not clear that this is what leads to biological activity}

Nereistoxin analogues Bensultap, Cartap hydrochloride, Thiocyclam, Thiosultap-sodium
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

Benzoylureas Bistrifluron, Chlorfluazuron, Diflubenzuron, Flucycloxuron, Flufenoxuron, Hexaflumuron, Lufenuron, Novaluron, Noviflumuron, Teflubenzuron, Triflumuron
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

Buprofezin Buprofezin
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

Cyromazine Cyromazine
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Strong evidence that action at this protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Diacylhydrazines Chromafenozide, Halofenozide, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Good evidence that action at one or more of this class of protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Amitraz Amitraz
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

20A Hydramethylnon Hydramethylnon
20B Acequinocyl Fenoxycarb
20C Fenoxycarb Fenoxycarb
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

21A METI acaricides and insecticides Fenazaquin, Fenpyroximate, Pyrimidifen, Pyridaben, Tebufenpyrad, Tolfenpyrad
21B Rotenone Rotenone (Derris)
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

22A Indoxacarb Indoxacarb
22B Metaflumizone Metaflumizone
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Lipid synthesis, growth regulation

{Good evidence that action at this protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives Spirodiclofen, Spiromesifen, Spirotetramat
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

24A Phosphine Aluminium phosphide, Calcium phosphide, Phosphine, Zinc phosphide
24B Cyanide Cyanide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Beta-ketonitrile derivatives Cyenopyrafen, Cyflumetofen
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve and muscle action

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Diamides Chlorantraniliprole, Cyantraniliprole, Flubendiamide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown,

4A Neonicotinoids Acetamiprid, Clothianidin, Dinotefuran, Imidacloprid, Nitenpyram, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam,
Azadirachtin Azadirachtin
Benzoximate Benzoximate
Bifenazate Bifenazate
Bromopropylate Bromopropylate
Chinomethionat Chinomethionat
Cryolite Cryolite
Dicofol Dicofol
Pyridalyl Pyridalyl
Pyrifluquinazon Pyrifluquinazon

Table Notes:

a) Inclusion of a compound in the classification above does not necessarily signify regulatory approval.
b) MoA assignments will usually involve identification of the target protein responsible for the biological effect, although groupings can be made where compounds share distinctive physiological effects and have related chemical structures.
c) Groups 26 and 27 are unassigned at this time and have therefore been omitted from the table.
d) A compound with an unknown or controversial MoA or an unknown mode of toxicity will be held in group ‘UN’ until evidence becomes available to enable that compound to be assigned to a more appropriate MoA class.
e) Actives in groups marked with a * are thought not to share a common target site and therefore may be freely rotated with each other unless there is reason to expect cross-resistance. These groups are 8, 13, and UN.

Source:

IRAC MoA Classification Scheme v. 7.3, February 2014, with permission. Further information is available from www.irac-online.org.
IRAC is a specialist technical committee providing best resistance management practice and does not endorse the use of specific products.